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为什么要提倡新农村改厕?

来源:http://www.mingdehao.com 日期:2020-05-13 发布人:admin
  一、卫生厕所
  1、 Sanitary toilet
  厕所是指人类修建的用于排泄大小便的特定场所。厕所可分为设置于居民家庭供一家一户使用的户厕和设置于公共场所、单位及其他地方具有公众使用性质
  Toilet refers to a specific place built by human beings for excretion and defecation. Toilets can be divided into household toilets set in households for each household and public places, units and other places with the nature of public use
  的公厕。卫生厕所是指具有适合如厕的厕所(有墙、有顶、有门),侧室内清洁、无蝇蛆、基本无臭味,便器无粪迹、尿迹,贮粪池不渗、不漏、密闭有盖,粪便按照规定清出并进行无害化处理的厕所。
  Public toilets. Sanitary toilet refers to a toilet (with walls, roofs and doors) that is suitable for toilet use. The side rooms are clean, free of flies and maggots, basically free of odor. The toilets are free of feces and urine traces. The septic tanks are impermeable, leakproof, sealed and covered. The feces are cleaned and treated innocuously according to the regulations.
  二、粪便无害化和无害化卫生厕所
  2、 Feces harmless and harmless toilet
  粪便无害化,是指有效降低人类粪便中的生物性致病因子数量,使病原体失去传染性的处理措施。
  Fecal innocuity refers to the treatment measures that effectively reduce the number of biological pathogenic factors in human feces and make pathogens lose their infectivity.
  无害化卫生厕所,是指符合卫生厕所条件要求,并具有粪便无害化处理功能,按规定清理出的粪便达到《粪便无害化卫生标准》的厕所。在我国农村改厕建设中,目前被列入无害化卫生厕所类型的主要有三格化粪池式厕所、粪尿分集式厕所、双翁漏斗式厕所和完整下水道冲式厕所灯。
  The harmless sanitary toilet refers to the toilet that meets the requirements of sanitary toilet conditions and has the function of harmless treatment of feces. The feces cleaned according to the regulations meet the sanitary standard for harmless treatment of feces. In the construction of rural toilets in China, there are three types of non hazardous sanitary toilets, including the three grid septic tank type toilet, the diversity type toilet, the double Weng funnel type toilet and the complete sewer flush type toilet lamp.
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  三、农村改厕的必要性
  3、 The necessity of changing toilets in rural areas
  在农村地区,由于生活习惯、思想观念、经济和自然条件等多种因素的影响,居民家庭使用的厕所普遍比较简陋。简陋的厕所除了让人如厕时感到不舒服外,更主要的是污染环境,给人类带来疾病。例如,露天的粪坑蝇蛆滋生,苍蝇作为一种病媒生物给人类传播疾病;渗漏的侧坑污染浅层地下水,粪便中的寄生虫卵、病毒、细菌在施肥过程中污染土壤及农作物,导致人类饮用水和食物被污染而感染疾病。因此,我们要对这些厕所进行改造或改建,在农村逐步普及卫生厕所和无害化卫生厕所。这厢工作被称为农村改厕。
  In rural areas, due to living habits, ideas, economic and natural conditions and other factors, the toilets used by households are generally simple. In addition to making people feel uncomfortable when using the toilet, the most important thing is to pollute the environment and bring diseases to human beings. For example, maggots breed in the open pit, and flies spread diseases to human beings as a vector organism; the leakage side pit pollutes the shallow groundwater, and the parasite eggs, viruses and bacteria in the feces pollute the soil and crops during the fertilization process, resulting in the contamination of human drinking water and food and infection of diseases. Therefore, we need to transform or reconstruct these toilets, and gradually popularize sanitary toilets and harmless sanitary toilets in rural areas. This job is called changing toilets in rural areas.
  四、农村改厕的意义
  4、 The significance of changing toilets in rural areas
  开展农村改厕,既有社会效益,也有经济效益。社会效益方面,改厕后农村居民减少了粪便污染带来的疾病,提高了健康水平;农村家庭改厕后改善了人居环境,居民们养成了良好的如厕习惯,健康行为得到了促进,同时提高了生活质量,农村精神文明也得到了促进和发展。经济效益方面,一是农村居民疾病减少,节省了吃药看病的费用;二是农村环境的改善,促进了农村地区集体和个人开展经营活动和吸引外部投资,促进了地区经济的发展。近年来,党和政府开展社会主义新农村建设,使农村改厕也成为新农村的一项重要工作内容。
  It has both social and economic benefits to carry out rural toilet reform. In terms of social benefits, after the toilet reform, rural residents reduced the diseases caused by fecal pollution and improved their health level; after the toilet reform, rural families improved their living environment, and the residents developed good toilet habits, promoted their healthy behaviors, improved their quality of life, and promoted and developed their spiritual civilization. In terms of economic benefits, first, the reduction of rural residents' diseases has saved the cost of taking medicine and seeing a doctor; second, the improvement of rural environment has promoted collective and individual business activities in rural areas, attracted external investment and promoted the development of regional economy. In recent years, the party and the government have carried out the construction of a new socialist countryside, so that rural toilet reform has become an important part of the new rural work.
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